ADOS-2 Courseread faq
The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2; Lord, Luyster, Gotham, & Guthrie, 2012; Lord, Rutter et al., 2012) is considered to be a ‘gold standard’ assessment recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) as part of the diagnostic assessment process for Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC).
Our three-day courses offer thorough and comprehensive training in the coding and administration of all five modules of the ADOS-2, as well as their application in a clinical and/or research context.
Our upcoming ADOS-2 training courses
- Introduction and training in the administration and coding of Modules 1-4
- Watching and coding of videos of Modules 1-4
- Introduction to Toddler Module
- Application of the ADOS-2 in clinical and research settings
- Post-course accreditation, which consists of viewing and coding one ADOS-2 assessment for clinical level reliability. Individualised feedback is provided for each delegate on their reliability rates
Our three-day ADOS-2 trainings are equally suitable for professionals with no previous experience in the ADOS-2 as well as professionals who have already observed ADOS-2 or other diagnostic assessments as part of their work. However, please note that a degree-level qualification in child development or equivalent (such as a degree in Psychology, Speech and Language Therapy, or Occupational Therapy) is an essential requirement for ADOS-2 administrators. If you would like to discuss suitability of the ADOS-2 course for you please do not hesitate to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org.
There are no pre-course requirements on our external ADOS-2 training courses, as we cover all information in detail during the course. However, there is a post-course accreditation exercise which consists of viewing and coding one ADOS-2 assessment. Upon completion of the course and satisfactory completion of the post-course accreditation work (achieving at least a 50% reliability rate) we issue certificates of clinical reliability. If trainees do not meet this threshold we ask they attend an ADOS-2 reliability workshop and demonstrate at least 50% reliability before we issue this certification. This is a standard requirement for ADOS-2 trainings internationally (please note attending our ADOS-2 reliability workshops will involve a further fee).
Whilst ADOS-2 is considered to be a ‘gold standard’ diagnostic tool for ASC, ASC can only be diagnosed following a comprehensive multi-disciplinary assessment. There is no single assessment method that can be used for diagnosing ASC in isolation. ADOS-2 is a useful diagnostic tool, recommended by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE), which is designed to be part of a broader clinical assessment of autism. The assessment should also include a developmental history (such as the ADI-R or 3di) and consideration of differential diagnoses. Further information about assessment of autism can be found here for children & young people, and here for adults.
ASC is diagnosed on a basis of a multi-disciplinary approach, involving professionals from various fields including Speech and Language Therapists, Occupational Therapists, Clinical, Educational, Forensic or Counselling Psychologists, Psychiatrists, Paediatricians, Nurses, Therapists, amongst other disciplines. It is expected that whoever gives the formal diagnosis of ASC is trained in differential diagnoses (usually psychiatrists, paediatricians, and clinical psychologists). However, other professionals from the multi-disciplinary team are often involved in different aspects of the assessment process (for example, doing the ADOS-2/ADI-R). It is good clinical practice to have at least two professionals involved in the diagnostic process. Whoever ‘puts their name’ to the diagnosis should be appropriately trained to consider whether the clinical presentation could be better explained by another condition (for example, intellectual disability, ADHD, OCD, Conduct Disorder, trauma- and stressor-related disorders).
After completion of the three-day ADOS-2 training delegates are required to complete a post-course accreditation exercise (see above). Delegates often ask how soon they can start using the ADOS-2, and how they can become reliable in administration and coding. This depends on the context in which you are working – if you are part of a clinical or research team with experienced ADOS-2 administrators, it is recommended that you shadow colleagues and complete some practice assessments before using the tool in clinical or research work. Administrators are considered ‘reliable’ in their coding when they consistently achieve a minimum of 80% agreement with consensus scores. If the reliability rates are below the required level, it will impact upon the validity of the assessment tool. The time and work involved in becoming reliable varies from one individual to the next and depends on existing experience.
You can check your reliability by attending our online ADOS-2 reliability workshops, through online ADOS-2 reliability videos or through booking one-to-one or group supervision with Marianna Murin (email@example.com). Even the most experienced ADOS-2 administrators should attend regular reliability meetings to ensure that they are maintaining internationally calibrated reliability.
The ADOS-2 manual recommends that administrators attend reliability meetings on a regular basis to check that they are maintaining reliability and not ‘drifting’ with coding and/or administration. There is no specific guidance about the frequency with which ADOS-2 administrators should attend reliability meetings- it is the responsibility of the individual / organisation to decide how often this is required. Although it is very helpful to hold reliability meetings within your own team, at least some reliability meetings should involve input from a trainer (as whole teams can ‘drift’ with their coding). If you are not working with ADOS-2 trained colleagues, you may need to attend reliability meetings more frequently – you can judge how often you need to attend based on your coding during these meetings.
Some research projects require additional reliability certification. This is a separate process which involves recording and submitting videos of you administering the ADOS-2, typically a video for either Module 1 or 2, plus a video for either Module 3 or 4. A trainer will then go through this video and provide specific feedback on both administration and coding. This process involves an additional fee. If you require research reliability, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
We have a general session for questions and answers at the end of our reliability workshops, and Marianna and the team would be happy to answer questions then. Outside of these sessions, due to receiving a huge volume of ADOS-2 questions by email, unfortunately it is not possible to keep on top of this as many questions require nuanced answers. We therefore recommend that if ADOS-2 users have any questions they cannot ask in one of our ADOS-2 reliability workshops that people book in supervision sessions to discuss their queries. This means that Marianna can respond to the questions properly and comprehensively – many queries often require nuanced exploration rather than being a quick yes/no type answer. If you would like to book a supervision session to discuss anything then please contact Marianna at email@example.com.
You will not need to have the ADOS-2 kit or manual during the course*. We will send you all the materials you will need. We advise that trainees have access to the ADOS-2 manual for the post-course work, and also for your own practice when using the ADOS-2.
*Please note that ADOS-2 materials are copyrighted, and whilst we provide all materials required for the course including ADOS-2 coding booklets and handouts, the ADOS-2 manual and ADOS-2 kit have to be purchased from a licenced distributor.